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The Chinese culture of mensal edge [graph]

From;    Author:Stand originally
Mural of barrow of     the Eastern Han Dynasty " banquet drink 100 play pursue " Henan close county hits a tiger to well balanced wall of 2 graves north comes up out of land. On the ground of graph go-between content and the two side that take at field, banquet drink watchs show, dou Chengfang has same circular containers esp. for use in the house before each guest, although the food inside knows inaccessibly, it is identical surely like that. This is the royal occasion that the ancients distributes food and feeds. Hspace=5 The brick of Chinese generation picture that Sichuan Chengdu comes up out of land " banquet drink pursues " . Ji of graph go-between content sits on banquet, there is case of an ancient sacrificial utensil before, food is placed above. Hspace=5 Carved stone of Henan the Eastern Wei Dynasty 534-550 " introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad bed " . What place of graph go-between content sits is introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad bed, what tableware places before is case of an ancient sacrificial utensil. Introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad bed replaced on the ground and sit, but before case of an ancient sacrificial utensil still is like euqally low. Hspace=5 A lot of people of   think, chinese should surround desk and the west of instead having a way that feed is divided dish and feed have a way. In fact China is to divide eat to make originally since ancient times, arrived after Northen Song Dynasty ability evolution goes to the adds up to eat to make   mensal margin China nowadays culture
  
  
Mr Zhang Wuchang published a few articles continuously recently, offer criticism to Chinese culture. He thinks " no matter science, literary Chinese does not have euqally comparable Europe " ; "No matter science, literature, music, sculpture, building, brushwork, chinese people is compared so that pass a someone without, be defeated so that appearance does not have light " . These word out the mouth of 5 constant gentlemen, make me open-eyed really! Of Chinese culture broad and profound, get ran a few chiliad of world, it is the fact that does not dispute; Enter modern lag behind at western country, also be the fact that does not dispute. But relation of this among them growth and decline and backside reason, it is very complex examination questions. I think, want to discuss so big subject, culture of the west in should be opposite at least has comprehensive understanding to just go, but do not look however from inside Zhang Wen,give its to have why to understand. Talk to the its Kan Kan that oneself do not understand truly, perhaps be the feature of contemporary and popular culture. So, it is Mr Zhang Wuchang not merely such, it is thunderous of made of baked clay boiler everywhere, we were used to. Let us seek a simple case. A lot of people think, the cent eat of Western-style food makes those who compare China add up to eat to make civilized, sanitation, chinese should surround desk and the west of instead having a way that feed is divided dish and those who feed have a way. Not only be it is not clear to be done like I and the person that 5 constant gentlemen read without too much opportunity so, the old learned man of the old politician that links China, Beijing University has published this kind of opinion on public affairs. But how do we know those who have a meal to we are on the history really? Know the history carefully, meeting discovery, china is to divide eat to make originally since ancient times, arrived after Northen Song Dynasty ability evolution arrives nowadays add up to eat to make. The history that distributes food should grow more than adding up to eat. From inside archaic mural we can see, when dining together, people sits respectively at respective case at the back of a few, those is lying between the distance that comparative here, each have a same meal, each eat each. The cent eat that this is a model is made. Famous grand door banquet, it is so dry. And from cent eat changes to add up to eat, only then Zhu Tang is acting, finish at Northen Song Dynasty. This change, it is the result that social progress progresses. The gradual progress   that distributes kind this is by cent eat to a when add up to eat to transfer most postulate. When food shorts relatively, "Divide by average per capita " it is the allocation that suits quite principle. Should obtain average, a certain number of equal shares are food component before repast with respect to need, this formed primitive cent eat to make. And after all the person's appeal, taste, habit is different, be needed to also differ, wait for after food is relatively abundant, people undertakes choosing according to his different be fond of conditionally, namely " each takes what he needs " . This is most agree with the cent prescription form that combines eat.   of residential architectural gradual progress is original, kitchen and dining-room are an organic whole, people is used to be in the building purchase one fire pond, wear cooking utensils Yu Huo to go up, it is good to wait for food boil, be allocated by fixed person, everybody surrounds fire and feed. Center of here since cooking, it is to dine place. To period of age the Warring States, the division of labor of kitchen and dining-room already gained ground. This division of labor drove eat to feed made choice to refine, what must finish before the person that reduced repast is very much eat working procedure. Deadbeat is for instance ripe to chunk fleshy cut, go the blundering and painstaking work such as bone, can finish in the kitchen now, what dining-room puts is to handle the eat after to feed subtly. We are OK just think, before dividing the work without this, if use,add up to eat, to average household 45 people (in fact, olden family does not break up, it is the) of 45 over people normally, in same feed implement in, cut of ground of happy to dance is same dish of food, it is to bring vexation on self it seems that, and had this one division of labor, people needs only from same feed implement in the food that obtains oneself to want is OK. Our meal is advancing the gradual progress   of food diversification ceaselessly, the sort of dish is bigger and bigger. Cent eat makes the progress that cannot get used to food diversification apparently. If 8 people take the word of 12 dish, each cent eat needs nearly 100 kinds of dinner service, such not only wasteful manpower and tableware, and take up very large space, the case of small an ancient sacrificial utensil in everybody (olden a kind use tool of Yu Chengfang alimental lowly) going up to put 12 tableware also is impossible almost. We do not have a desk and chair before the early of gradual progress   that eat feeds furniture. Before this, ancient people is used to " on the ground and sit, feed by case of an ancient sacrificial utensil " , spread the matting that makes up with bulrush namely ground serves as a thing to sit on, an ancient sacrificial utensil or case are placed to put the thing such as tableware in order to fill to regard as before feed case, when having a meal, on banquet genuflect is sitting to eat, namely alleged " Ji sits " . Nomadic after entering Central Plains, as mutual as the culture of Central Plains area confluence, influence, brought new furniture. Be in early later period of the Eastern Han Dynasty, nomadic introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad bed (compare lower sitting one kind chair) already passed into Central Plains. The application of this kind of chair makes original kneeling position change became sitting position, such, case of short an ancient sacrificial utensil fits the requirement that sitting position changes no longer, be washed out gradually. And, at this moment building relatively more lofty before rise, as it happens needs lofty furniture cooperate. Then big case tall desk begins to appear and develop quickly. So, if again the cent eat with original follow is made, everybody should have a lofty desk and chair, it is OK that 45 people still are returned probably (actually already very crowded) , the number can create waste more again, and too heavy also, take up the space is much, why should not and be one, with dish and feed? Our ancestor is abiding by the gradual progress   of time of work and rest all the time " sunrise and make, day is entered and cease " the order of nature. Take the place of from business about age the Warring States inside this paragraph of period, basically execute a day of two eat to make, namely " eat time (7 to at 9 o'clock) , next city explain (came seventeen a little bit at 15 o'clock) " . Be in about last years of a dynasty or reign of the Warring States, a day of 3 eat are made gradually popular, increased " banquet 輔 " (came at 19 o'clock pontoon) . Want to have a meal inside this time, must deploy illume, and the illume tool at that time is not us absolutely now electric lamp such brightness, its illumination range is very narrow also. The dinner that cent eats needs a lot of illuminant, but still meet dim punch-drunk. Use add up to eat to be able to be united solve lighting problem conveniently. The gradual progress   that eats tableware our ancestor also ever with Hesperian is same now, chopstick of and rather than of use knife and fork. Knife and fork should use valuable assistant at the same time, because want between this person and person,maintain maintenance distance. Knife and fork is only comfortable at the same time the transmission at close quarters, also arrive from the dish before the bosom with respect to be confined to probably between the mouth. If this distance presses the demand that adds up to eat to make, want to lengthen the mouth to reach the center of the table at least, the radius that should compare a table at least that is to say is longer. Apparent, knife and fork cannot assume the transmission function of this distance. And after the chopstick appears, add up to eat to go to the lavatory much. From this angle, we can understand so probably, hesperian still uses knife and fork to take food up to now, each other is cause and effect maintain minute of eat to make with them. Adding up to eat is historical progress, reflect the itself in process of its gradual progress not only, also reflect going up to the tremendous influence of social behavior and culture. Add up to eat to be fed in all pull close the affinity between people, nurturance to others the care is taken care of and the goodness with our self-effacing nation, also make the Chinese becomes Wen Liang is genial, added the harmony of the cohesive affinity of family and whole society then; Developed communication ability of the Chinese, created communication place, increased cooperative chance; Satisfied people to be opposite the demand of food diversity, and rich drive and affection demand; Also nurturance the Chinese is good discuss, the disposition of good make a exception in sb's favor. With this example, what I want to explain is, wait for the mankind at literature, artistic, music, sculpture, building, painterly, science and technology relatively advanced activity, having a meal is the simplest activity. But, if connect so simple have a meal it is not clear that the problem is done, how go evaluating our vast and complex culture? How dare rushed place such conclusion? Up to now, what we have not undertake passing comprehensive check and system to Chinese history culture and civilization is compositive, what cannot understand historical culture in the round in that way like 5 constant gentlemen so is true, it is unavoidable, excusable. And the thing absurd of not real to oneself knowledge adds a comment, the problem that is 5 constant him gentlemen.
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